Monta
Vista High School 2002-2003

Chemistry
Honors Objectives

Introduction to Chemistry

**1. ****Introduce safety procedures in the
laboratory.**

**2. ****Identify various lab equipments.**

**3. ****Identify the locations of fire
extinguisher, fire blanket and eye wash fountain.**

**4. ****Introduce lab report format for Chemistry
Honors.**

**5. ****Apply lab report format to recipe lab.**

**6. ****Make and interpret a graph using proper
elements of graph construction and introduce the concept of ‘best fit’ line.**

**7. ****Introduce direct and indirect proportions.**

** **

** **

**1. ****Introduce Chemistry as a physical science.**

**2. ****Introduce branches of Chemistry.**

**3. ****Define states of matter.**

**4. ****List properties of matter. (Physical and
Chemical, Extensive and Intensive)**

**5. ****Classification of matter. (Mixtures, Pure
Substances)**

**6. ****Introduce methods of separation of mixtures
(Distillation, Chromatography, Filtration and Centrifugation)**

**7. ****Introduce periodic table and its basic
features.**

** **

**1. ****Apply scientific method to a given problem.**

**2. ****Write the basic SI system units, symbols
and meanings.**

**3. ****Use SI system to express numbers with the
prefixes (M, k, c, m, m, n)**

**4. ****Manipulate units in mathematical
expressions.**

**5. ****Introduce writing numbers in scientific
notation and to express any given number in scientific notation and change a
number written in scientific notation to standard form.**

**6. ****Calculate numbers using scientific
notation.**

**7. ****Express measurements with correct number of
significant figures.**

**8. ****Express calculated numbers correctly using
rules of significant figures.**

**9. ****Explain the difference between accuracy and
precision.**

**10. ****Calculate the percent error.**

**11. ****Introduce dimensional analysis (factor
label method).**

**12. ****Apply factor label method to convert
between different units.**

** **

**1. ****Identify steps in development of Modern
Atomic Theory.**

**2. ****Draw the atomic models of Dalton, Thomson,
Kelvin, Rutherford, Bohr and Modern Atomic Theory.**

**3. ****Use the laws of Conservation of Mass,
Multiple Proportions and Constant Composition to answer atomic questions.**

**4. ****Explain Milikan’s oil drop experiment to
calculate charge and mass of electron.**

**5. ****Study forces in nucleus and their
interactions.**

**6. ****Identify symbols of elements.**

**7. ****Define atomic number and mass number and
calculate number of e, p, and n using it.**

**8. ****Calculate average atomic mass of elements.**

**9. ****Define mole, molar mass and Avogadro’s
number.**

**10. ****Apply mole concept to calculate molar mass,
mass of a substance from moles, and number of particles from the molar mass.**

**11. ****Use mole diagram to show relationship
between mass in g, amount in moles and number of atoms of elements in a
substance.**

** **

**1. ****Identify properties of light.**

**2. ****Define the properties of electromagnetic
radiation (EMR) and identify light as EMR.**

**3. ****Identify dual nature of light. (Wave-
Particle nature)**

**4. ****Distinguish between continuous and line
spectrum.**

**5. ****Calculate the “wavelike” quantities of
matter such as wavelength, frequency, speed and energy.**

**6. ****Identify atomic orbital and describe the
many aspects of the orbital energy levels(s,p,d,f) of an atom including shapes,
sizes and relative energy.**

**7. ****Assign quantum numbers to electrons in
orbitals. (n, l, m, s)**

**8. ****Write electron configuration of neutral
atoms applying Afbau’s principal, Pauli’s Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.**

**9. ****Write electron configurations for excited
atoms.**

** **

** 1.Define basic periodic table terms.**

**2. Identify major groups in periodic table. (
metals, non metals, metalloids, lanthanides, actinides, alkali metals, alkaline
earth metals, transition metals, gases, noble gases)**

**3. Identify the connection between electron
configuration and position of elements in periodic table(s, p,d,f block
elements)**

**4. Identify periodic and group trends for
Ionization Energy, Electron Affinity, Electronegativity, and atomic radius)**

**5. Compare atomic and ionic radii for an atom.x**

** **

** **

**1. ****Compare and contrast Ionic, Covalent,
Covalent coordinate, Covalent network and Metallic bonds.**

**2. ****Write structure of ionic compounds using
Criss Cross Method.**

**3. ****Write electron dot structure with
understanding of octet rule.**

**4. ****Identify Polar and Non Polar covalent bonds
based on electronegativity difference.**

**5. ****Identify polar covalent compounds with
dipole moment and draw structure.**

**6. ****Predict covalent species that will form hydrogen
bonds.**

**7. ****Identify the properties of the substances
with hydrogen bonds.**

**8. ****Identify compounds with multiple covalent
bonds. ( single, double, triple bonds)**

**9. ****Compare different types of bonds for
various properties including bond strength, B.P., M.P.**

**10. ****Write Lewis dot structure.**

**11. ****Determine shape and bond angles for
molecules using VSEPR theory.**

**12. ****Identify hybridization. ( sp, sp2, sp3,
sp3d, sp3d2)**

**13. ****Identify Dipole- Dipole interactions,
Hydrogen bonds and London Dispersion Force.**

**14. ****Resonance**

** **

**1. ****Identify and write formulas for binary
compounds and acids.**

**2. ****Predict oxidation number of an atom in a
compound or ion.**

**3. ****Write the formula of ionic and molecular
substances given their names. **

**4. ****Write the names of ionic and molecular
compounds given the formula. (Using stock system and Prefix system.)**

**5. ****Name acids given the formula and vice
versa.**

**6. ****Identify the names of polyatomic ions.**

**7. ****Determine the percent composition of a
compound.**

**8. ****Determine Empirical and Molecular formula
of a compound.**

**9. ****Determine Empirical formula form combustion
data.**

** **

** **

__Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions__

**1. ****Describe chemical equation terms.**

**2. ****Write chemical reaction equation using
symbols or words.**

**3. ****Balance a chemical equation.**

**4. ****Indicate the phases of reactants and
products in a chemical reaction.**

**5. ****Classify reactions as one of five major
types. (Synthesis, Decomposition, Single Replacement, Double Replacement, and
Combustion)**

**6. ****Predict the outcome (products) of chemical
reactions knowing reaction type.**

**7. ****Introduce activity series of metals.**

**8. ****Predict if a single replacement reaction
will happen based on activity series.**

** **

**1. ****Identify mole ratios of reactants and
products.**

**2. ****Use the mole diagram to convert mass to
moles.**

**3. ****Apply reaction stoichiometry to do mass-
mass conversions in a chemical reaction.**

**4. ****Determine quantitatively the limiting and
excess reactants in a chemical reaction.**

**5. ****Calculate percent yield.**

** **

**1. ****Explain gas behavior using Kinetic
Molecular Theory (KMT).**

**2. ****Describe pressure and its units.**

**3. ****Calculate P and V using Boyle’s Law.**

**4. ****Calculate V and T using Charles’ Law.**

**5. ****Calculate P and T using Gay-Lussac’s Law.**

**6. ****Calculate P, V and T using Combined Gas
Law.**

**7. ****Calculate the density of a gas.**

**8. ****Calculate partial pressure of a gas in a
mixture of gases.**

** **

**1. ****Relate reaction coefficients to volume of
gases.(Avogadro’s Law)**

**2. ****Calculate molar volume of a gas at STP.**

**3. ****Relate mass, volume, particles, and moles
for a gas in a reaction at non-STP conditions.**

**4. ****Define ideal and non-ideal gases.**

**5. ****Calculate P, V,n and T using the Ideal Gas
Law.**

**6. ****Calculate molar mass or density of a gas
from Ideal Gas Law.**

**7. ****Explain stoichiometry of gases. (
volume-mass, volume-volume)**

**8. ****Compare diffusion and effusion.**

**9. ****Use Graham’s Law to predict the relative
diffusion rates of gases.**

** **

**1. ****Define basic phase terms.**

**2. ****Compare properties of liquids and solids.**

**3. ****Identify changes in states.**

**4. ****Explain volatile and non-volatile liquids.**

**5. ****Define the temperature at which phase
changes occur.**

**6. ****Interpret phase diagrams.**

** **

**1. ****Identify types of solutions. (Saturated,
Unsaturated, and Supersaturated)**

**2. ****Differentiate between solutions, colloids
and suspensions.**

**3. ****Introduce properties of colloids. (Size of
Particles, Tyndall Effect, Brownian Movement)**

**4. ****Identify factors affecting rate of
dissolution.**

**5. ****Describe interaction between solute and
solvent particles.**

**6. ****Identify the thermodynamics of solution
process. (Heat of Solution)**

**7. ****Create and interpret a temperature and
solubility curve.**

**8. ****Identify the effect of pressure on
solubility. (Henry’s Law)**

**9. ****Calculate molarity of solutions.**

**10. ****Calculate molality of solutions.**

**11. ****Calculate mole fraction of solute and
solvent in a solution.**

** **

**1. ****Identify the process of dissolution,
precipitation and ionization.**

**2. ****Write net ionic equations.**

**3. ****Introduce electrolysis and strong and weak
electrolytes.**

**4. ****Identify freezing point depression
(∆T _{f}) and boiling point elevation ((∆T_{b}) **

**5. ****Solve problems related to K _{b} and
K_{f}.**

**6. ****Identify osmotic pressure.**

**7. ****Identify solubility rules.**

**8. ****Apply solubility rules to predict what
precipitate will form when two ionic compounds are mixed.**

** **

**1. ****Introduce strong acids and strong bases.**

**2. ****Identify hydronium ion and autoionization
of water.**

**3. ****Introduce neutralization reaction and write
net ionic equation for neutralization reaction.**

**4. ****Define pH. **

**5. ****Calculate pH given hydrogen ion
concentration and vice versa.**

**6. ****Define K _{w}, its numerical value
and calculations.**

** **

**1. ****Introduce Arrhenius, Bronsted Lowry and
Lewis acids and bases.**

**2. ****Identify conjugate acid and base pairs
especially in amphoteric substances.**

**3. ****Calculate pH of weak acids and bases.**

**4. ****Define K _{a} and K_{b} values
for weak acids and bases and calculate K_{a1} and K_{a2} for
dibasic acids.**

**5. ****Describe titration and related definitions.**

**6. ****Interpret titration curves for strong acids
and strong bases, strong acid and weak base and weak acids and weak bases.**

**7. ****Solve problems related to titration.**

** **

**1. ****Define basic thermochemistry and Kinetics
terms.**

**2. ****Calculate enthalpy of a reaction using
standard enthalpies and Hess’s Law.**

**3. ****Calculate specific heat (C _{p})
using Q= mC_{p} ∆T**

**4. ****Explain endothermic and exothermic
reactions using energy diagrams.**

**5. ****Identify and calculate heats of combustion
∆H _{c} and heat of formation ∆H_{f}.**

**6. ****Describe Collision Theory and apply it to
explain how reactions occur.**

**7. ****Predict the effect of temperature,
concentration, pressure and catalyst on the rates of reaction.**

**8. ****Define activation energy. **

**9. ****Identify the effect of catalyst on
activation energy.**

**10. ****Draw energy diagrams if ∆E _{a}
and ∆E_{a`} are given.**

**11. ****Define order of reaction and identify zero
order, first order and second order reactions.**

**12. ****Calculate the order of reaction if the
concentration changes of reactant and products are given with time.**

**13. ****Identify units for k for zero order, first
order and second order reactions.**

** **

**1. ****Identify reversible and irreversible
reactions.**

**2. ****Calculate equilibrium constants Kc and Kp. **

**3. ****Describe homogeneous and heterogeneous
equilibrium and write equilibrium expressions for both.**

**4. ****Apply Le Chatelier’s Principle to predict
the direction in which a reversible reaction will be favored.( Compare Q and K)**

**5. ****Predict the effect of P, T, concentration
of reactant or product or addition of catalyst on the equilibrium in a
reversible reaction.**

**6. ****Identify common ion effect.**

**7. ****Identify buffers and their buffering
capacities.**

**8. ****Apply knowledge of buffers to explain
buffering action.**

**9. ****Identify solubility product.(K _{sp})**

**10. ****Apply solubility product to predict if a
precipitate will form in a chemical reaction.**

** **

**1. ****Identify oxidation states using oxidation
numbers.**

**2. ****Identify that oxidation and reduction are
simultaneous processes.**

**3. ****Define various terms related to oxidation
and reduction.**

**4. ****Balance redox reactions using half reaction
method.**

**5. ****Introduce oxidizing and reducing agents.**

**6. ****Introduce electrochemical cells.**

**7. ****Apply electrode potential to predict the spontaneity
of a reaction.**

** **

**1. ****Introduce structure and bonding of carbon.**

**2. ****Identify structural formula and isomers.**

**3. ****Introduce alkanes, alkenes and alkynes,
their structure, uses and naming.**

** **

**1. ****Define basic nuclear terms.**

**2. ****Identify three basic types of radioactive
decays.**

**3. ****Apply the concept of half-lives to
calculate the amount of substance left in a radioactive decay.**

**4. ****Write the radioactive decay reaction for a
given situation.**

**5. ****Identify the basic uses of radioactivity.**

**6. ****Write the nuclear reactions for fission and
fusion processes.**