Monta Vista High School 2002-2003

 

 

     Chemistry Honors Objectives          

  

Introduction to Chemistry

1.     Introduce safety procedures in the laboratory.

2.     Identify various lab equipments.

3.     Identify the locations of fire extinguisher, fire blanket and eye wash fountain.

4.     Introduce lab report format for Chemistry Honors.

5.     Apply lab report format to recipe lab.

6.     Make and interpret a graph using proper elements of graph construction and introduce the concept of ‘best fit’ line.

7.     Introduce direct and indirect proportions.

 

 

Chapter 1: Matter and Change

1.     Introduce Chemistry as a physical science.

2.     Introduce branches of Chemistry.

3.     Define states of matter.

4.     List properties of matter. (Physical and Chemical, Extensive and Intensive)

5.     Classification of matter. (Mixtures, Pure Substances)

6.     Introduce methods of separation of mixtures (Distillation, Chromatography, Filtration and Centrifugation)

7.     Introduce periodic table and its basic features.

 

Chapter 2: Measurement and Calculations

1.      Apply scientific method to a given problem.

2.      Write the basic SI system units, symbols and meanings.

3.      Use SI system to express numbers with the prefixes (M, k, c, m, m, n)

4.      Manipulate units in mathematical expressions.

5.      Introduce writing numbers in scientific notation and to express any given number in scientific notation and change a number written in scientific notation to standard form.

6.      Calculate numbers using scientific notation.

7.      Express measurements with correct number of significant figures.

8.      Express calculated numbers correctly using rules of significant figures.

9.      Explain the difference between accuracy and precision.

10.  Calculate the percent error.

11.  Introduce dimensional analysis (factor label method).

12.  Apply factor label method to convert between different units.

 

Chapter 3: Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter

1.     Identify steps in development of Modern Atomic Theory.

2.     Draw the atomic models of Dalton, Thomson, Kelvin, Rutherford, Bohr and Modern Atomic Theory.

3.     Use the laws of Conservation of Mass, Multiple Proportions and Constant Composition to answer atomic questions.

4.     Explain Milikan’s oil drop experiment to calculate charge and mass of electron.

5.     Study forces in nucleus and their interactions.

6.     Identify symbols of elements.

7.     Define atomic number and mass number and calculate number of e, p, and n using it.

8.     Calculate average atomic mass of elements.

9.     Define mole, molar mass and Avogadro’s number.

10. Apply mole concept to calculate molar mass, mass of a substance from moles, and number of particles from the molar mass.

11. Use mole diagram to show relationship between mass in g, amount in moles and number of atoms of elements in a substance.

 

Chapter 4: Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms

1.     Identify properties of light.

2.     Define the properties of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and identify light as EMR.

3.     Identify dual nature of light. (Wave- Particle nature)

4.     Distinguish between continuous and line spectrum.

5.     Calculate the “wavelike” quantities of matter such as wavelength, frequency, speed and energy.

6.     Identify atomic orbital and describe the many aspects of the orbital energy levels(s,p,d,f) of an atom including shapes, sizes and relative energy.

7.     Assign quantum numbers to electrons in orbitals. (n, l, m, s)

8.     Write electron configuration of neutral atoms applying Afbau’s principal, Pauli’s Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

9.     Write electron configurations for excited atoms.

 

Chapter 5: Periodic Law

            1.Define basic periodic table terms.

2.   Identify major groups in periodic table. ( metals, non metals, metalloids, lanthanides, actinides, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, gases, noble gases)

3.   Identify the connection between electron configuration and position of elements in periodic table(s, p,d,f block elements)

4.   Identify periodic and group trends for Ionization Energy, Electron Affinity, Electronegativity, and atomic radius)

5.   Compare atomic and ionic radii for an atom.x

 

 

Chapter 6: Chemical Bonding

1.     Compare and contrast Ionic, Covalent, Covalent coordinate, Covalent network and Metallic bonds.

2.     Write structure of ionic compounds using Criss Cross Method.

3.     Write electron dot structure with understanding of octet rule.

4.     Identify Polar and Non Polar covalent bonds based on electronegativity difference.

5.     Identify polar covalent compounds with dipole moment and draw structure.

6.     Predict covalent species that will form hydrogen bonds.

7.     Identify the properties of the substances with hydrogen bonds.

8.     Identify compounds with multiple covalent bonds. ( single, double, triple bonds)

9.     Compare different types of bonds for various properties including bond strength, B.P., M.P.

10. Write Lewis dot structure.

11. Determine shape and bond angles for molecules using VSEPR theory.

12. Identify hybridization. ( sp, sp2, sp3, sp3d, sp3d2)

13. Identify Dipole- Dipole interactions, Hydrogen bonds and London Dispersion Force.

14. Resonance

 

Chapter 7: Chemical Formulas and Chemical Compounds

1.     Identify and write formulas for binary compounds and acids.

2.     Predict oxidation number of an atom in a compound or ion.

3.     Write the formula of ionic and molecular substances given their names.

4.     Write the names of ionic and molecular compounds given the formula. (Using stock system and Prefix system.)

5.     Name acids given the formula and vice versa.

6.     Identify the names of polyatomic ions.

7.     Determine the percent composition of a compound.

8.     Determine Empirical and Molecular formula of a compound.

9.     Determine Empirical formula form combustion data.

 

 

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions

1.     Describe chemical equation terms.

2.     Write chemical reaction equation using symbols or words.

3.     Balance a chemical equation.

4.     Indicate the phases of reactants and products in a chemical reaction.

5.     Classify reactions as one of five major types. (Synthesis, Decomposition, Single Replacement, Double Replacement, and Combustion)

6.     Predict the outcome (products) of chemical reactions knowing reaction type.

7.     Introduce activity series of metals.

8.     Predict if a single replacement reaction will happen based on activity series.

 

Chapter 9: Stoichiometry

1.     Identify mole ratios of reactants and products.

2.     Use the mole diagram to convert mass to moles.

3.     Apply reaction stoichiometry to do mass- mass conversions in a chemical reaction.

4.     Determine quantitatively the limiting and excess reactants in a chemical reaction.

5.     Calculate percent yield.

 

Chapter 10: Physical Characteristics of Gases

1.     Explain gas behavior using Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT).

2.     Describe pressure and its units.

3.     Calculate P and V using Boyle’s Law.

4.     Calculate V and T using Charles’ Law.

5.     Calculate P and T using Gay-Lussac’s Law.

6.     Calculate P, V and T using Combined Gas Law.

7.     Calculate the density of a gas.

8.     Calculate partial pressure of a gas in a mixture of gases.

 

Chapter 11: Molecular Composition of Gases

1.     Relate reaction coefficients to volume of gases.(Avogadro’s Law)

2.     Calculate molar volume of a gas at STP.

3.     Relate mass, volume, particles, and moles for a gas in a reaction at non-STP conditions.

4.     Define ideal and non-ideal gases.

5.     Calculate P, V,n and T using the Ideal Gas Law.

6.     Calculate molar mass or density of a gas from Ideal Gas Law.

7.     Explain stoichiometry of gases. ( volume-mass, volume-volume)

8.     Compare diffusion and effusion.

9.     Use Graham’s Law to predict the relative diffusion rates of gases.

 

Chapter 12: Liquids and Solids

1.     Define basic phase terms.

2.     Compare properties of liquids and solids.

3.     Identify changes in states.

4.     Explain volatile and non-volatile liquids.

5.     Define the temperature at which phase changes occur.

6.     Interpret phase diagrams.

 

Chapter 13: Solutions

1.     Identify types of solutions. (Saturated, Unsaturated, and Supersaturated)

2.     Differentiate between solutions, colloids and suspensions.

3.     Introduce properties of colloids. (Size of Particles, Tyndall Effect, Brownian Movement)

4.     Identify factors affecting rate of dissolution.

5.     Describe interaction between solute and solvent particles.

6.     Identify the thermodynamics of solution process. (Heat of Solution)

7.     Create and interpret a temperature and solubility curve.

8.     Identify the effect of pressure on solubility. (Henry’s Law)

9.     Calculate molarity of solutions.

10. Calculate molality of solutions.

11. Calculate mole fraction of solute and solvent in a solution.

 

Chapter 14: Ions in Aqueous Solutions and Colligative Properties

1.     Identify the process of dissolution, precipitation and ionization.

2.     Write net ionic equations.

3.     Introduce electrolysis and strong and weak electrolytes.

4.     Identify freezing point depression (∆Tf) and boiling point elevation ((∆Tb)

5.     Solve problems related to Kb and Kf.

6.     Identify osmotic pressure.

7.     Identify solubility rules.

8.     Apply solubility rules to predict what precipitate will form when two ionic compounds are mixed.

 

Chapter15 & 16: Strong Acids and Bases

1.     Introduce strong acids and strong bases.

2.     Identify hydronium ion and autoionization of water.

3.     Introduce neutralization reaction and write net ionic equation for neutralization reaction.

4.     Define pH.

5.     Calculate pH given hydrogen ion concentration and vice versa.

6.     Define Kw, its numerical value and calculations.

 

Chapter 15&16: Weak Acids and Weak Bases

1.     Introduce Arrhenius, Bronsted Lowry and Lewis acids and bases.

2.     Identify conjugate acid and base pairs especially in amphoteric substances.

3.     Calculate pH of weak acids and bases.

4.     Define Ka and Kb values for weak acids and bases and calculate Ka1 and Ka2 for dibasic acids.

5.     Describe titration and related definitions.

6.     Interpret titration curves for strong acids and strong bases, strong acid and weak base and weak acids and weak bases.

7.     Solve problems related to titration.

 

Chapter 17: Thermochemistry and Kinetics

1.     Define basic thermochemistry and Kinetics terms.

2.     Calculate enthalpy of a reaction using standard enthalpies and Hess’s Law.

3.     Calculate specific heat (Cp) using Q= mCp ∆T

4.     Explain endothermic and exothermic reactions using energy diagrams.

5.     Identify and calculate heats of combustion ∆Hc and heat of formation ∆Hf.

6.     Describe Collision Theory and apply it to explain how reactions occur.

7.     Predict the effect of temperature, concentration, pressure and catalyst on the rates of reaction.

8.     Define activation energy.

9.     Identify the effect of catalyst on activation energy.

10. Draw energy diagrams if ∆Ea and ∆Ea` are given.

11. Define order of reaction and identify zero order, first order and second order reactions.

12. Calculate the order of reaction if the concentration changes of reactant and products are given with time.

13. Identify units for k for zero order, first order and second order reactions.

 

Chapter 18: Chemical Equilibrium

1.     Identify reversible and irreversible reactions.

2.     Calculate equilibrium constants Kc and Kp.

3.     Describe homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibrium and write equilibrium expressions for both.

4.     Apply Le Chatelier’s Principle to predict the direction in which a reversible reaction will be favored.( Compare Q and K)

5.     Predict the effect of P, T, concentration of reactant or product or addition of catalyst on the equilibrium in a reversible reaction.

6.     Identify common ion effect.

7.     Identify buffers and their buffering capacities.

8.     Apply knowledge of buffers to explain buffering action.

9.     Identify solubility product.(Ksp)

10. Apply solubility product to predict if a precipitate will form in a chemical reaction.

 

Chapter 19: Redox Reactions

1.     Identify oxidation states using oxidation numbers.

2.     Identify that oxidation and reduction are simultaneous processes.

3.     Define various terms related to oxidation and reduction.

4.     Balance redox reactions using half reaction method.

5.     Introduce oxidizing and reducing agents.

6.     Introduce electrochemical cells.

7.     Apply electrode potential to predict the spontaneity of a reaction.

 

Chapter 20: Carbons and Hydrocarbons

1.     Introduce structure and bonding of carbon.

2.     Identify structural formula and isomers.

3.     Introduce alkanes, alkenes and alkynes, their structure, uses and naming.

 

Chapter 21: Nuclear Chemistry

1.     Define basic nuclear terms.

2.     Identify three basic types of radioactive decays.

3.     Apply the concept of half-lives to calculate the amount of substance left in a radioactive decay.

4.     Write the radioactive decay reaction for a given situation.

5.     Identify the basic uses of radioactivity.

6.     Write the nuclear reactions for fission and fusion processes.